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In 1627 Urban gave the final shape to the celebrated Bull, "In Coena Domini." In 1634 he enjoined upon all ruling bishops, including cardinals, to observe the episcopal residence as decreed at the Council of Trent.
During Urban's pontificate occurred the second trial and condemnation of Galileo by the Roman Inquisition.
In recognition of his services in France, Paul Vcreated him cardinal-priest, 11 September, 1606, with the titular Church of S.
Pietro in Montorio, which he exchanged for that of S. On 17 October, 1608, he was transferred to the See of Spoleto, where he convened a synod, completed the seminary, and built two other diocesan seminaries, at Spello and Visso.
In order to increase the number of missionaries in China and Japan he opened these two countries to all missionaries in 1633, although Gregory XIII had given the Jesuits the exclusive right to those missions in 1585.
A third nephew of Urban, Taddeo Barberini, was made Prince of Palestrina and Prefect of Rome.
It is scarcely credible what immense riches accrued to the Barberini family through Urban's nepotism.
In a Bull, dated 22 April, 1639, he strictly prohibited slavery of any kind among the Indians of Paraguay, Brazil, and the entire West Indies.
In his efforts to restore Catholicism in England Urban had little success.
Maffeo Barberini, born at Florence in April, 1568; elected pope, 6 August, 1623; died at Rome, 29 July, 1644.